Modelling of Bit Error Rate as a Function of Knife Edge Diffraction Loss Based on Line of Sight Percentage Clearance

Chibuzor Henry Amadi, Constance Kalu, Kufre Udofia


In this paper, modelling of bit error rate as function of knife edge diffraction loss based on line of sight (LoS) percentage clearance is presented. Mathematical expressions for investigating the effect of variations in percentage clearance (Cp %) of 1st Fresnel zone on diffraction loss, bit energy per noise-density (E_b/N_0) in dB and bit error rate (BER) are presented. Also, the average error bits per second for binary phase shift keying (BPSK), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 4-quadrature amplitude modulation (4-QAM) digital modulations in additive white-Gaussian-noise (AWGN) are specified. Simulated result is shown to analyse and compare the bit error rate as a function of diffraction loss for the selected digital modulation schemes. The results show that the reduction in percentage clearance for first Fresnel zone reduces the energy per noise-density thereby increasing bit error rate. MAT LAB results show that the average error bit per second of BPSK has 0.0000, PAM has 0.1429, and 4-QAM has 0.0009. In all, for any given percentage clearance, BPSK has the smallest number of error bits per second. Also, the lowest BER and the lowest number of error bits per second occur at about 70 % clearance of 1st Fresnel zone. For any given amount of reduction in Cp %, the corresponding increase in BER and number of error bits per second increases as data rate increases.

Keywords: Bit error rate, bit energy per noise-density, digital modulations, diffraction loss, Fresnel zone, diffraction parameter, percentage clearance.

Full Text:



Davies, J. (2014). Newnes radio engineer’s pocket book. London, England: George Newnes.

Qureshi, M. A., Noor, R. M., Shamshirband, S., Parveen, S. Shiraz, M., & Ganini, A. (2015). A survey on obstacle modeling patterns in radio propagation models for vehicular ad hoc networks. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 40(5), 1385 – 1407.

Kumar, S. (2015). Wireless communications fundamental and advanced concepts: Design planning and application (1st ed.). Gistrup, Denmark: River Publishers.

Tyson, R. K. (2012). Principles of adaptive optics (3rd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Academic Press.

Tang, K., Qiu, C., Lu, J., Ke, M., & Liu, Z. (2014). Focusing and directional beaming effects of airborne sound through planar lens with zigzag slits. Journal of Applied Physics, 117(2): 1 – 10.

Antonia, M. G. (2010). Calculation of the coverage area of mobile broadband communications, focus on land (Master’s thesis).University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norwegian.

Argota, J. A., Machado, M. M., Iglesias, I., &Ustamujic, S. (2012). Characterization tools for estimate radar signals with partial obstructions. Proceedings of 7thEuropean Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology (pp. 1 – 5). Bilbao, Spain.

Qing, L. (2005). GIS aided radio wave propagation modeling and analysis (Master’s thesis). Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, United State.

Sharma, D. K., Mishra, A., &Saxena, R. (2010). Analog and digital modulation techniques: An overview, InternationalJournal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies, 3(1), 551 – 561.

Sklar, B. (2001). Digital communications: Fundamentals and applications (2nd ed.). New Jersey, United State: Prentice Hall.

Blaunstein, N., &Christodoulou, C. G. (2014). Radio propagation and adaptive antenna for wireless communication network:Terrestrial, atmosphere and ionospheric (2nd ed.).New Jersey, United State: John Wiley & Sons.

Baldassaro, M. P. (2001). RF and GIS: Field strength prediction for frequencies between 900 MHz and 28 GHz (Doctoral dissertation). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, United States.

Malila, B., Falowo, O., & Ventura, N. (2015). Millimeter wave small cell backhaul: An analysis of diffraction loss in NLOK links in urban canyons.IEEE Conference on AFRICON (pp.1- 7). University of Cape Town, South African.

Hector, J., Sturm, C., & Pontes, J. (2015). Radio channel fundamental and antennas: In radio systems engineering. New York City, United State: Springer International.

Lambrechts, J. W., & Sinha, S. (2015). Estimation of signal attenuation in the 60 GHz band with an analog BiCONS passive filter.International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 7(6), 645 – 653.

Bhuvaneshwari, A., Hemalatha, R., & Satyasavithri, T. (2015). Path loss prediction analysis by ray tracing approach for NLOS indoor propagation. International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Engineering System (pp. 499 – 491). Illinous, United State.

Ahamed, M. M., & Frauque, S. (2015). Path loss slope based cell selection and handover in heterogeneous networks. IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (pp. 499 – 504). Guntur, India.

Sun, S., & Bancroft, J. C. (2002). Amplitude within the Fresnel zone for the zero- offset case. CREWES Research Reports, 14.

Wang, H., Yang, K., Zheng, K., Yang, Y., & Ma., Y. (2016). Estimation of electromagnetic field in air by a magnetic dipole in the sea based on a current sheet model.IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 10(7), 709 – 718.

Kopylov, Y. V., Popov, A. V., & Vinogradov, A. V. (1996). Diffraction phenomena inside thick Fresnel zone plates.Research Science, 31(6), 1815 – 1822.

Jouad, A., Bor, J., Lafond, O., &Himdi, M. (2016). Millimeter- wave Fresnel zone plate lens based on foam gradient index technological process. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (pp. 1- 4). Davos, Switzerland.

Beasley, J. S., & Miller, G. M. (2007). Modern electronic communication.New Jersey, United State: John Wiley & Sons.

Mongre, R., & Kpaoor., M. (2013). Comparative analysis of digital modulation techniques on the basis of their bit error rate in VHDL. International Journal of Engineering Innovation and Research, 2(6), 540 – 542.

Rahaman, D. M. (2013). Performance analysis of essential modulation techniques. Universal Journal of Communications and Network, 1(2), 39 – 43.

Dhabhai, H. (2014). A performance analysis of digital modulation techniques under simulation environment. Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, 1(5), 2014.

Pillai, K., (2008). Modulation roundup: Error rates, noise and capacity. Retrieved from

Dixit DuttBohra, A. B. (2014). Bit error rate analysis in simulation of digital communication systems with different modulation schemes. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering and Technology, 1(3).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Engineering & Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Based on a work at

Copyright © 2016-2020 International Journal of Engineering & Technology (IJET)

ISSN (online) 2545-417X

Disclaimer: Articles on International Journal of Engineering & Technology (IJET) have been previewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication. The Journal, Chief Editor and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.